Most of that mumbo-jumbo stuff is for unusual conditions. Dry cells don't have fluid in them, but they don't handle deep discharge/recharge cycles very well. Deep cycle batteries are when you are using only the battery for extended periods of time with no alternator. Never heard of valve-regulated, or thin wall.
If you maintain a battery correctly (clean contacts, fluid levels, etc.), you won't have a problem with standard automotive batteries for about the life of the battery as indicated on the sticker. Get the highest Cold Cranking Amps (CCA) that you can, as that gives you the most juice for the starter. The Cold part is for winter temperatures.
IIRC, valve regulated refers to the out-gassing from the acid and the release of that gas. Thin plate means there are more plates which lowers the internal impedance of the battery. This means less loss of energy in that battery due to plate dissipation. Only an "issue" at high amperage out (like starting). I say "issue" because what it really equates to is another couple of cranks when the battery's life is near over. You know, like you would realize 3 cranks before it dies that the battery was about to leave you stranded at the quickie mart.